5G NR (New Radio) is a unified and more capable air interface with a number of diversified services, different spectrum and deployment methods. This new Air interface is designed in such a way that it would be able to meet all the requirements of 5G technology which demands 10 times decrease in end-to-end latency, ten times increase in experienced throughput, three times increase in spectral efficiency, hundred times increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency and 10 time increase in connection density of the networks. The Air interface of 4G technology is not able to comply with the above stated requirements , so for 5G there is a requirement to design a new air interface and it is named New Radio (NR). NR is unified in nature and it is more capable than the previous generations. Diversified services supported by NR include eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband), URLLC (ultra reliable low latency communications ) and mMTC (massive Machine type communications). Diverse spectrum has a varied frequency range and the spectrum is categorized as low band (below 1 GHz), mid band ( 1-6 GHz) and high band (Above 24 GHz). The high band is also named as mmWave band.
Different technologies which makes it possible to have NR are Scalable OFDM numerology which has flexible slot based framework, advanced channel coding techniques which are multi-edge LDPC and CRC aided polar, massive MIMO which is Reciprocity based MU-MIMO ( Multi user multiple input multiple output ) , beamforming and beam tracking techniques. Scalable OFDM based 5G NR air interface has scalable numerology, frequency localization , lower power consumption and asynchronous multiple access. Deployment modes of 5G NR are of two types : NSA ( Non Standalone ) and SA (standalone ).
Initial 5G NR launches depend on the existing 4G infrastructure and this mode is called as NSA where the new network has to depend upon the existing infrastructure. SA is a fully deployed mode with no dependence on previous generation, it has its own core network as 5GC. 5G NR supports five types of sub-carrier spacing of 15 KHz, 30 KHz, 60 KHz, 120 KHz and 240 KHz in the FR 1 ( Frequency range 1) and FR2. FR1 includes sub 6 GHz bands whereas FR2 includes frequency bands in the mmWave range (24-100 GHz).
5G NR has a benefit that it will enable the network to support adaptive bandwidth which will include more capacity for wireless users and also improved links among users. By utilizing different techniques , 5G NR will improve the performance, flexibility, scalability and efficiency of the mobile wireless networks. 5G NR massive MIMO technology increases coverage and capacity which is faster and provides more uniform data rates throughout the cell. Spectrum aggregation is very essential for 5G NR deployments because CA and dual connectivity enable deployments with tightly and loosely coordinated cells. There should be dual connectivity across LTE and NR , Carrier aggregation should be required across spectrum bands , CA should be across FDD and TDD bands and also CA should be across different spectrum types e.g licensed and unlicensed bands.
5G NR CA also supports mid band deployments which are required to have better utilization of the spectrum and to have better spectrum efficiency. 5G NR could help in the 5G expansion and all applications would be better, the applications are Industrial IoT with eURLLC, 5G NR C-V2X, smart transportation, future verticals, services and devices, new device classes with boundless XR, 5G massive IoT, 5G broadcast etc.