5G is the technology which will be powering our future and we will be making its use to make our devices even smarter than they are now. We will be experiencing facilities like Self-Driven Cars, high-Speed Internet, Smart Applications for our homes and Virtual Reality just to name a few. The features list of 5G technology is quite exhaustive but if we talk about the most prominent features, it will include the likes of: Low Latency Service, Scalable and Ultra Reliable Network,
Major Components of 5G Technology:
If we have a look at the advancements we have made in terms of cellular technology, we will observe that new technology is based on a platform similar to current existing ones but with some changes and tweaks. Our current 4G Cellular Networks are much faster than any other technology we had before but to develop a technology which is much faster, reliable and has low latency than current existing ones we will have to make some changes.
The 5G network system will be making use of fresh network terminologies, spectrum of high bandwidths, complex schemes for modulation and hardware modules which are quite advanced.
Let us have a detailed look at various components used in 5G Technology:
1. Spectrum - 5G NR
To support much higher data rates, our upcoming 5G technologies will be making the use of 5G spectrum The millimeter wave spectrum will be lying in the range of 24 GHz to 90GHz and a brand new yet unlicensed sub 6GHz spectrum will be making its debut with this upcoming 5G technology which can make our dream of 5G broadband a reality.
Scientists who are currently working on developing this 5G technology are estimating that upcoming 5G technology will be able to provide speeds in figures of Gigabytes per second which is faster than even the present broadband connections.
2. Small Cells and Pico Cells:
To power the devices and provide network connectivity in small areas of about 500m to upto 2 square km, small cells are used which act as a low base power station which powers LTE and advanced versions. In order to receive and transmit data, these small cells will be making the use of millimeter waves. However, these waves are not considered to be suitable for transmission to long distances because of the distortion they receive from the atmosphere and surroundings.
3. Massive MIMO:
MIMO stands for Multiple In Multiple Out and it is a concept which is used to increase the rate of data transmission which makes the use of an added antenna for increasing the efficiency of data transmission and receiving. It also makes the use of a large number of small antennas and an array is created.
If MIMO technology can be implemented, we will be able to transfer massive amounts of data in a very short span of time.
Beamforming is another modern technology which is a concept used to transmit data to the devices of users efficiently. The location of the device of the user is determined precisely by using some advanced software algorithms and the base stations then transmit the signals only in the direction in which the user is located.
Traditional base stations then transmit this data in various directions which causes unnecessary utilization of the resources and a higher than normal power consumption.