Advanced Antenna System is an important option for large-scale deployments in existing 4G and 5G technologies. It enables beamforming and MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) techniques that are powerful for improving the end-user experience, coverage, and capacity parameters. It enhances network performance in both uplink and downlink directions. The shift to AAS technology is enabled by various technology advancements by the integration of the baseband, radio, and antenna and total reduction in digital processing cost. This is a powerful option for various mobile network operators who want to improve coverage, capacity, and user experience using various existing sites already installed in the network. It has key terms like AAS radio which is a hardware unit that comprises an antenna array, radio chains, and part of baseband, all tightly integrated to facilitate AAS feature. AAS feature is a multi-antenna feature such as beamforming and Massive MIMO that can be executed in AAS radio.
The complete AAS is a combination of the AAS radio and the AAS feature. The conventional system comprises a passive antenna and remote radio unit which comprises low radio chains. It has a dual-polarized antenna element which is a combination of two antenna elements with orthogonal polarizations which can enable diversity in the systems. Multi-antenna techniques which are an AAS feature result in significant performance gains. Beamforming is the ability to direct radio energy through the radio channel and it is directed towards the dedicated receiver. It is the ability to collect the signal energy from a specific transmitter. it can provide high performance in both UL and DL.